Source Of Drugs Pdf Download
zoopharmacognosy, the process by which animals self-medicate, by selecting and using plants, soils, and insects to treat and prevent disease. Main article: Sponge isolates. doi:10.1038/nrd3480. This has resulted in a pool of information about the potential of plant species as an important source of starting material for drug discovery. One alternative to farming involves replacing medical ingredients from threatened species with manufactured chemical compounds. Examples are the local anesthetic and stimulant cocaine; the psychedelic psilocin; the stimulant caffeine; nicotine; the analgesic morphine; the antibacterial berberine; the anticancer compound vincristine; the antihypertension agent reserpine; the cholinomimeric galatamine; the spasmolysis agent atropine; the vasodilator vincamine; the anti-arhythmia compound quinidine; the anti-asthma therapeutic ephedrine; and the antimalarial drug quinine. PMID27438816. "Identifying Cardiotoxic Compounds".
The desired gene is coupled to rapidly replicating DNA (viral, bacterial or plasmid). Examples of drug compounds isolated from crude preparations are morphine, the active agent in opium, and digoxin, a heart stimulant originating from Digitalis lanata. Steroids, for example, are derivatives of the triterpene squalene. Historical background. increase activity against the chosen target reduce activity against unrelated targets improve the druglikeness or ADME properties of the molecule. Modern drug discovery involves the identification of screening hits, medicinal chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity, selectivity (to reduce the potential of side effects), efficacy/potency, metabolic stability (to increase the half-life), and oral bioavailability. ^ Endo A. PMID17309302. This approach is based on the fact that only a small part of earths biodiversity has ever been tested for pharmaceutical activity.
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